Before 1790 principal types of antique dolls - all wooden and all wax antique dolls. The dresses usually made of mostly silk, especially brocaded with floral designs of stripes. Fabric narrow, generally 18-20 inches wide, and dresses usually made of great many pieces. Woolens - seldom found. Green was a popular color during the first half of the century and pastel colors during the last half, as a result of the rococo influence).
The clothes trimming with galloon, often with metallic thread of tinsel, gimp, furbelows, lace, net, sequins, silk embroidery and crewel work.
Types of dresses are round frock, open-front robe, including sacque-back French robe. Special features and items - leading strings, stomachers, separate pockets, two part pins, and absence of drawers.
1790-1815, War Years' Death of Antique dolls. Principal types of antique dolls - all wooden, all wax antique dolls, composition cardboard heads, rag antique dolls seldom survived from this period. The dresses usually made of thin cottons and thin silk, loosely woven materials such as gauze and net. White, yellow, brown and pink predominating colors.
The clothes trimming with ribbons of all types, machine-mader lace, embroidery, especially tambour work, flounces and Vandyking, some fringe and braid.
Types of dresses for 1790-1800 the bodice with neckerchief sometimes crossing at front waistline, sometimes tucked in low neckline, full skirt.
After 1795 empire-style frock - long, thin figure with very high waistline.
After 1800 - diamond-shaped back seams and sleeves set far back. Long sleeves generally covering part of the hands.
New inventions and developments - pantaloons and pantalets (1804), shaded ribbons (1806).
1815-1837, Peace, Commercial Prosperity. Principal types of antique dolls - all wooden, wooden heads, composition, wax over composition, usually with cloth bodies and kid arms, rag with embroidered or painted features.
The outfits and dresses usually made of cotton, especially muslins and chintz, challis, some silk. The clothes trimming with ribbons, net embroidery, rouleaux, braid, fringe, festoons of flowers, buttons, decoration of Vandyking and scallops.
Types of dresses - frock, pelisse-robe, stomacher front (1815-25), gigot or imbecile sleeves (1825-36).
New inventions and developments - patent leather invented by Seth Boyden (1820s), crinoline, a new French material of horse hair (1829), rubber elastic invented, gradually replaced coiled springs (1831), machine-made cottons become available (1830),
Special features and items - bandeaux and ferronieres worn around the head (1820), button of cloth with iron shank invented by Sanders (1825), metal rings for eyelet holes on corsets (1828), high hairdos, including Apollo knot (1820 and 1830), hair lopped around ears (1830), copper hook and eyes replaced by brass hooks and eyes (1830s), pins with head and shaft in one piece in vented, gradually replaced two-part pins.
1837-1851, Growth of International Competition. Principal types of antique dolls - composition heads, kid bodies, wooden limbs, all kid bodies, some with kid arms. Wax -over composition heads, cloth bodies, kid arms. Poured- wax heads, cloth bodies, limbs of wax or other material. China head with cloth bodies, some with kid arms, all-kid bodies, wooden bodies, china limbs.
Rag antique dolls relatively few surviving.
For doll dresses very popular silk, tarlatan and velvet fashionable, cotton declining. Usually woven of two complimentary colors. Polychromatic printing, cheaper then woven patterns. More sophisticated dyeing techniques.
The clothes trimming with machine-made as well as handmade, cording, tassels, quilling, braid, passementerie, lace, large buttons.
Type of doll dresses - round dress or robe, pelisse robe, redingote. Little change in types of dresses during the 1840s, styles of eighteenth century revieved.
New inventions and developments - porcelain buttons invented by Prosser (1840), threefold linen buttons introducted by John Ashton.
Corsets with elastic thread woven into the material (1848).
Special features and items - many petticoats being worn, ca.1950s. Very tight lacking corsets. Drawers with vandyked or trilled edges.
1851-1865, Related Industries. Principal types of antique dolls - wax, china, bisque, composition, wooden, rubber, rag. Fabrics - cotton, wool, silk and combination of them. Trimmings - velvet ribbons, braid, fringes, embroidery, lace, grelots. Types of dresses - frocks, robes and 2-pieces dresses with jacket and skirt.
New inventions and developments -
1850s - hooks and eyes of brass wire, aniline dyes, 1856 - skeleton petticoat and artificial crinoline. 1858 - family sewing machine. 1862 - new patent stockings, seam and stocking woven simultaneously.
Special features and items - women's reform (Bloomer) outfits (early 1850s), sleeves with two seams used on dresses and jackets.
1865-1878 - Fashionable Lady Antique dolls. Principal types of antique dolls bisque, wax, composition, china, rag, rubber, wooden and gutta-percha. For dresses very popular silk, wools, and combination of these. The clothes trimming with pleating, ruching, shirring, braid, fringe, quilling, velvet ribbons, lace, Vandyking, rosettes.
Type of dresses - jacket with basque and underskirt, polonaise with petticoat, tunic with underskirt, princess style, trains (especially in 1870s).
New inventions and developments - mid 1860s - six-cord cabled thread of three double plies developed because early threads proved too perishable and expensive for sewing machines. Late 1860s - makers' labels appeared on clothes. 1869-1870 - patent studs. Ca 1877 - first weighted silks.
Special features and items - late 1860s- Japanese silks, 1870s - chemise and drawers combinations increasingly used.
La Poupee and Gazette de la Poupee had in 1864 published pictures and description of the clothes on the antique dolls of Jumeau, Huret, Rohmer, Bereux and other. In 1872 the French firm of Bru Jeune published a catalog of their antique dolls. The trimming on the antique doll's clothes of this period was lavish. They are veritable confections of pleating knife pleating, goffered frills, rosettes and so on. Fringe and braid continued to be used, as well as velvet ribbons and lace. Vandyking, tabs, festoons, and scallops all served as additional ornamentation.
The styles changed gradually during this period. High neckline were fashionable, but a few V necklines and low necklines are also found. The waistline was high in the late 1860s and fell to some extent during the 1870s. The fullness of the skirt was pulled back gradually until, by 1875, it had disappeared almost entirely in the front.
1878-1889, French bebe antique doll. Principal types of antique dolls bisque, wax, composition or papier mache, china, rag, rubber, wooden and celluloid. For dresses very popular cotton, silk, wools and combination of these. Weighted fabrics appeared. The clothes trimming with ribbons, lace (excluding black), braid (especially rickrack and galloon with metal thread), pleating, shirring or smocking, and piping,
Type of dresses - frocks with low waistline and short pleated skirts, suits with jackets and skirts, polonaises, panniers and tunics or overskirts, pointed bodices, princess style dresses.
New inventions -
Late 1870s - suspender garters fastening to bottom of stays; Danish safety pin, modern type with wide protecting sheath.
Esrly 1880s - elastic bands began to supersede tapes for tying skirts, but few found on antique dolls.
Mid 1880s - colored lace appeared.
Late 1880s - dress hook on back of stays fastening to eye on skirt, to prevent side slip; rare on antique dolls.
New or revived styles -
Late 1870s -combination (drawers and attached bodies) began to be popular.
Early 1880s on - plastrons or vests.
Mid 1880s on - Balayeuse (dust ruffle) had nearly disappeared, bustles on girl and lades antique dolls, short skirts and back fullness, often with bows, on child antique dolls.
Mid 1880s on - yokes, sometimes with low square Pompadour necklines.
Late 1880s - long one piece sleeves with fullness, especially on top shoulder.
1889-1900 - Kate Greenway Period. The English illustrator Kate Greenaway (1846-1901) began her career doing Christmas and Valentine cards. In 1879 she produced her first children's book through the expensive process of color-block engraving in collaboration with the publisher Edmund Evans. Her rather cute eighteenth-century costumes affected a whole generation, not only of children's books but of dress also. Principal types of antique dolls 1889-1900s - bisque, wax, composition or papier mache, china, rag, rubber, metal, wooden and celluloid. For dresses very popular flannel (cheaper grades of fabric on commercially dressed antique dolls than formerly) , cotton, silks, wools, and combination of these.
Trimmings - ribbons, braids (including rickrack and galloon), embroidery.
Style features of clothes - yokes, bloused waist, guimpes worn under low-necked sleeveless dresses, separate bodices and skirts. Long full sleeves, especially leg-o'-mutton and bishop.
Development and inventions - box with patterns, antique doll and materials. Uncut rag antique dolls and their clothes printed on cloth, crepe paper used for antique dolls clothes, popularity of ribbons run through beading, especially on underwear.
1893 - invention of artificial silk from wood, 1890s - silk weighted with chemicals (so destructive to fabric that fewer examples remain than of older or untreated silks).
The two important influences of antique doll's clothes in the 1890s were popularity of Kate Greemway type styles and interest in ethnic antique dolls aroused by improved methods of communication and transportation. During the preceding period an illustrator Kate Greenway had achieved considerable fame, and there were many imitators of her style, which was based on a revival of the type of clothes worn by children in the early decades of 19c. These styles were no longer considered old-fashioned - they had nostalgic glamour, being the clothes great-grandparents of the 1890s had worn as children. The Greenway styles romanticized clothes, they were copied dor antique dolls, especially in England and America.
In the later 1880s the French bebe wore dresses above the knees. Then around 1890 many of the children's antique dolls belan to wear floor- or ankle-length dresses.
1900-1908, German Antique dolly-Face Era. Principal types of antique dolls 1900-1908 - bisque, wax, composition, china, rag, rubber, metal, wooden, leather and celluloid. Fabric - cotton, silks, wools, and combination of these. Very little artificial silk used. Sheer materials and light colors, alsp plaids, checks and polka dots.
Trimmings - lace, ribbons, braid, embroidery.
Style of clothes - yokes, Gibson girl, pouch-type waistline, suspenders on skirts worn over guimpes, suits of jacket and skirt, shirtwaist and skirts.
Development and changed - increased selection of garments and accessories sold separately, boxes of trousseaus sold separately, art antique dolls (1908), patent fasteners, hook with triple strands of wire.
1908-1915, Character Antique doll. Principal types of antique dolls for this time - bisque dolls, composition, rag, celluloid, rubber, wooden, china, wax, metal, leather. Fabrics - cotton, silk, wool, linen, a little artificial silk. Sheer materials, stripes, prints, white, red, blue, green.
Trimmings with lace, ribbon, braid, embroidery, fabrics in contrasting colors, fur, and imitation fur.
Styles of the clothes for dolls - empire dresses, high waistlines; French dresses, low waistline; Russian tunics, including tunics with uneven hemlines. Rompers, yokes, kimono-type sleeves, pouchlike blousing, panels down front of dress.Development and other changes - more realism in faces and clothes of the dolls, short baby dresses on bent-limb dolls, knitted undershirts, garter belts, armoires filled with clothes and linens for dolls.
1915-1921 Wartime Dolls. Principal types of antique dolls for this time -composition, rag, bisque, celluloid, rubber, wooden, china (almost disappeared), metal, leather. Fabrics - cotton including felt, silk, wool, artificial silk. Sheer materials, plain and prints. During the war - patriotic colors of the allies, especially red, white and blue. After the war - white and pactels.
Trimmings with lace, ribbon, embroidery, fabrics in contrasting colors.
Styles of the clothes for dolls - simplification due to wartime shortages; yokes, kimono-type sleeves, short jumpers.
Development and other changes - rotund clothes to cover fat doll type bodies, increase in knit and crocheted garments, decrease in homemade clothes, saches tending to be narrow, often trimmed with multiple rosettes.
1921-1929 - American Leadership in Antique Dolls.
Principal types of dolls for this time -composition, rag, bisque, celluloid, rubber, wooden, china (rare), metal. White, pastel colors and checks.
Trimmings with lace, ribbon, embroidery, braids, fabrics in contrasting colors.
Styles of the doll clothes - wide variation, loose-fitting, bloomers showing below skirts (American dolls). New inventions and Development - manufacturing doll's clothes now becoming big business, embroidery sets for doll's clothes being produced Rayon dresses, zippers.